By-Laws - Updated Spring 2022

  

General Studies Student Council By-Laws

 

2021-2022 Edition





 

Spring 2022

Columbia University

School of General Studies

BY-LAWS

 

INTRODUCTION

 

The following set of by-laws shall govern the General Studies Student Council (GSSC) and its members in all relevant situations. The GSSC By-laws are intended to address both the unique situations and daily activities of the GSSC by preserving the rights of the individual and obeying the will of the majority. The GSSC By-laws shall remain subservient to the GSSC Constitution and the policies of Columbia University in the City of New York. The primary goal of the GSSC By-laws is to provide an operating structure for the GSSC, so that its members may serve their fellow students to their fullest ability.

 

ARTICLE I: MEMBERSHIP

 

  1. Class of Membership

    1. Voting Members– Those members who are defined by the GSSC Constitution and Article II of the GSSC By-laws

    2. Non-Voting Members– Those members who are liaisons, delegates, or sit on a committee without holding an office and with no ability to vote

    3. A Voting Member may fulfill the role of a Non-Voting Member, but no Voting Member may hold two voting positions

  2. Qualifications for Membership

    1. Voting Members– In order to be eligible for membership as a Voting Member of the GSSC, a student must be qualified as described in Article III, Section 1 of the GSSC Constitution.

    2. Non-Voting Members– In order to be eligible for membership as a Non-Voting Member of the GSSC, a student must be enrolled at Columbia University in the School of General Studies and be in good standing with the Dean of Students Office.

  3. Methods for Becoming a Member

    1. Voting Members– In order to become a Voting Member of the GSSC, a student must satisfactorily complete the methods as described in Article III of the GSSC Constitution.

    2. Non-Voting Members– In order to become a Non-Voting Member of the GSSC, a student must be appointed by an Executive Officer as described in Article IV of the GSSC By-laws.

  4. Duties, Rights, and Obligations of Members

    1. Voting Members– The duties of each Voting Member shall be described in Article V of the GSSC Constitution and in Article II of the GSSC By-laws. Additional duties may be assigned by the Executive Board, as needed for each Voting Member to best serve the GS Student Body and the GSSC Constitution. Each Voting Member shall have the right to vote and speak during Council meetings. Each Voting Member shall be obligated to attend all meetings as described in Article III Section 4 of the GSSC Constitution and Article VIII of the GSSC By-laws.

    2. Non-Voting Members– Each Non-Voting Member shall have their duties assigned by the relevant Executive Officer.

 

 

ARTICLE II: MEMBERS

  1. Executive Officers – Members of the GSSC who are members of the Executive Board shall be known as Executive Officers. Their titles and duties shall be as described in Article V of the GSSC Constitution and as follows:

    1. The Student Body President shall:

      1. Bear primary responsibility for the execution of all GSSC directives.

      2. Keep the Executive Board abreast of all current business via weekly Executive Board meetings and other modes of communication.

      3. Keep the GS student body updated on all relevant issues through email communication.

      4. Meet with an advisor from the Student Life Office office at least once per month to provide updates on the GSSC.

      5. Actively engage with the Policy Committee on initiatives.

      6. Attend other GSSC committee meetings as needed.

      7. Facilitate the appointment process.

      8.  Cast a vote on proposed motions during Council Meetings only in the event of a tie.

    2. The Vice President of Policy shall:

      1. Assist the Student Body President in the fulfillment of his or her duties.

      2. Assume the role of Student Body President in the event of the resignation, impeachment, or ineligibility of the current Student Body President.

      3. Have explicit knowledge of parliamentary procedure. 

      4. Uphold non-budgetary inter-group relations with administrators and the executive boards of other councils and governing boards.

      5. Identify goals and initiatives to deliver progress in the areas of academic services, student services, financial aid, housing, and any other relevant areas.

      6. Develop and expand the Policy Committee to include delegates and liaisons as needed to achieve progress and encourage student involvement.

      7. Oversee the updating of the Constitution and its By-laws in accordance with resolutions and  amendments passed by the GSSC.

    3. The Vice President of Finance shall:

      1. Assist the Student Body President in the fulfillment of his or her duties.

      2. Implement timely and fair procedures for the funding of the GSSC.

      3. Uphold budgetary inter-group relations with administrators and the executive boards of other councils and governing boards.

      4. Advise the GSSC regarding the Student Activities Fee.

      5. Serve on the Activities Board at Columbia, keeping the GSSC abreast of relevant issues on the governing board.

      6. Identify goals and initiatives to deliver progress in the areas of budgeting, funding, financial procedures, allocations, financial reporting, and any other relevant areas.

      7. Develop and expand the Finance Committee to include delegates and liaisons as needed to achieve progress and encourage student involvement.

    4. The Vice President of Communications shall:

      1. Assist the Student Body President in the fulfillment of his or her duties.

      2. Uphold non-budgetary inter-group relations with administrators and the executive boards of other councils and governing boards.

      3. Facilitate communication between the GS student body, members of the GSSC, and the GS administration.

      4. Oversee the taking of minutes at weekly GSSC meetings.

      5. Identify goals and initiatives to deliver progress in the areas of communications, transparency, integrity, informational resources, dissemination of information, and any other relevant areas.

      6. Facilitate the coverage of GSSC activities by campus publications

      7. Develop and expand the Communications Committee to include delegates and liaisons as needed to achieve progress and encourage student involvement.

      8. Be responsible for sending out weekly newsletter to the GS student body.

    5. The Vice President of Campus Life shall:

      1. Assist the Student Body President in the fulfillment of his or her duties.

      2. Uphold non-budgetary inter-group relations with administrators and the executive boards of other councils and governing boards.

      3. Identify goals and initiatives to deliver progress in social, academic, pre-professional, philanthropic events, and any other relevant areas.

      4. Develop and expand the Campus Life Committee to include delegates and liaisons as needed to achieve progress and encourage student involvement.

  2. Voting Members– Appointed or elected members of the GSSC who are not members of the Executive Board and have voting rights shall be known as Voting Members. Their titles and duties shall be described in Article V of the GSSC Constitution and as follows.

    1. The Chief Policy Representative shall:

      1. Sit on the Policy Committee.

      2. Be the Vice Chair of the Policy Committee.

      3. Assist the Vice President of Policy in the fulfillment of his or her duties.

      4. Seek out, identify, and create policy initiatives.

      5. Fulfill all special assignments as delegated by the Vice President of Policy.

    2. The Chief Finance Representative shall:

      1. Sit on the Finance Committee.

      2. Be the Vice Chair of the Finance Committee.

      3. Assist the Vice President of Finance in the fulfillment of his or her duties.

      4. Seek out, identify, and create financial initiatives.

      5. Fulfill all special assignments as delegated by the Vice President of Finance.

    3. The Chief Communications Representative shall:

      1. Sit on the Communications Committee.

      2. Be the Vice Chair of the Communications Committee.

      3. Assist the Vice President of Communications in the fulfillment of his or her duties.

      4. Seek out, identify, and create communications initiatives.

      5. Fulfill all special assignments as delegated by the Vice President of Communications.

    4. The Chief Campus Life Representative shall:

      1. Sit on the Campus Life Committee.

      2. Be the Vice Chair of the Campus Life Committee.

      3. Assist the Vice President of Campus Life in the fulfillment of his or her duties.

      4. Seek out, identify, and create events initiatives.

      5. Fulfill all special assignments as delegated by the Vice President of Campus Life

    5. The Student Services and Academic Affairs Representative shall:

      1. Sits on the Policy Committee.

      2. Ensure that information concerning academic issues shall be made available to the GS student body.

      3. Provide opportunities for interaction between students and faculty in various major departments as needed.

      4. Uphold relations with other Academic Affairs Representatives from other councils.

      5. Organize the GSSC Excellence in Teaching Awards and nomination and selection process.

      6. Maintain a relationship with advisors from the Student Life Office and Students - Administrative Services at Columbia University.

      7. Monitor the quality of student service and address concerns that may involve, but are not limited to:

        1. The Office of the Registrar

        2. Student Financial Services

        3. Academic Information Systems

        4. University Housing

        5. Athletic Facilities

        6. Dining Services

        7. Health Services

      8. Uphold relations with other Student Service Representatives from other councils

      9. Fulfill all special assignments as delegated by the Vice President of Policy.

    6. The University Senator shall:

      1. Sit on the Policy Committee.

      2. Maintain a relationship with the:

        1. Dean of the School of General Studies.

        2. Dean of Enrollment Management.

        3. Director of Educational Financing.

        4. Dean of Students.

      3. Provide weekly updates to council regarding non-confidential Senate matters.

    7. The Treasurer shall:

      1. Sit on the Finance Committee.

      2. Assist the Vice President of Finance in the fulfillment of his or her duties.

      3. Attend the weekly Campus Life Committee meeting in order to keep track of necessary vendors and payments in support of GSSC events.

      4. Obtain an outline of planned student activities from the Campus Life Committee for budgeting purposes by the third week of each semester.

      5. Ensure Campus Life Committee members are aware of the B-form/application process and assist in the processing of B-forms, invoices, and W-9 vendor set-up process.

      6. Advise student organizations about GSSC financial procedures and allocations.

      7. Fulfill all special assignments as delegated by the Vice President of Finance.

      8. Provide weekly updates to the Campus Life Committee and representatives on the status of their remaining budgets.

    8. The External Events Chair shall:

      1. Sit on the Campus Life Committee and act as liaison between the Vice President of Campus Life and the Vice President of Communications.

      2. Assist the Vice President of Campus Life in the fulfillment of his or her duties.

      3. Organize the annual spring GSSC Gala.

      4. Organize the annual fall GSSC Orientation Event.

      5. Offer assistance to other GSSC members in planning events.

      6. Fulfill all special assignments as delegated by the Vice President of Campus Life.

    9. The Alumni Affairs Representative shall:

      1. Sit on the Campus Life Committee.

      2. Assist the Vice President of Campus Life in the fulfillment of his or her duties.

      3. Provide opportunities for interaction between students and alumni.

      4. Coordinate with the Chief Communications Representative to properly promote all alumni-related events.

      5. Monitor the quality of alumni programming at the university and address concerns that may emerge.

      6. Maintain a relationship with the:

        1. Office of Alumni and Development.

        2. Associate Director for Alumni Relations at General Studies.

      7. Fulfill all special assignments as delegated by the Vice President of Campus Life.

    10. The International Students Representative shall:

      1. Sit on the Campus Life Committee.

      2. Assist the Vice President of Campus Life in the fulfillment of his or her duties.

      3. Provide opportunities for interaction between international and non-international students.

      4. Monitor the quality of international student life at the university and address concerns that may emerge.

      5. Fulfill all special assignments as delegated by the Vice President of Campus Life.

    11. The Jewish Theological Seminary (JTS) Students Representative shall:

      1. Sit on the Campus Life Committee.

      2. Assist the Vice President of Campus Life in the fulfillment of his or her duties.

      3. Provide opportunities for interaction between JTS and non-JTS students.

      4. Monitor the quality of JTS student life at the university and address concerns that may emerge.

      5. Fulfill all special assignments as delegated by the Vice President of Campus Life.

    12. The Family and Working Students Representative shall:

      1. Sit on the Policy Committee.

      2. Assist the Vice President of Policy in the fulfillment of his or her duties.

      3. Work on policy initiatives on behalf of working students and students with families.

      4. Monitor the quality of working student and students with family life at the university and address concerns that may emerge.

      5. Work with on campus organizations that promote the wellbeing of students with families and working students.

      6. Fulfill all special assignments as delegated by the Vice President of Policy.

    13. The Veteran Students Representative shall:

      1. Sit on the Policy Committee.

      2. Assist the Vice President of Policy in the fulfillment of his or her duties.

      3. Work on policy initiatives on behalf of veteran students.

      4. Monitor the quality of veteran services at the university and address concerns that may emerge.

      5. Maintain a relationship with all veteran affairs officials at Columbia University.

      6. Fulfill all special assignments as delegated by the Vice President of Policy.

    14. The Community Services and Sustainability Representative shall:

      1. Sit on the Campus Life Committee.

      2. Assist the Vice President of Campus Life in the fulfillment of his or her duties.

      3. Provide philanthropic opportunities for the GS student body.

      4. Maintain a relationship with Community Impact, while serving as a liaison between Community Impact and the GSSC Campus Life Committee. 

      5. Coordinate and promote sustainability in the planning of GSSC-sponsored events. 

      6. Promote sustainability initiatives in consultation with the GSSC Policy Committee

      7. Seek out, identify, and create community service initiatives for the GS student body.

      8. Work with other GSSC committees as needed.

      9. Fulfill all special assignments as delegated by the Vice President of Campus Life.

      10. Maintain a relationship with on-campus organizations that focus on sustainable development, while serving as a liaison between these organizations and the GSSC Campus Life Committee.

    15. The Senior Class Treasurer shall:

      1. Be classified academically as a senior.

      2. Sit on the Finance Committee.

      3. Assist the Senior Class President and the Senior Class Vice President in the fulfillment of their duties.

      4. Manage the Senior Class budget.

      5. Fulfill all special assignments as delegated by the:

        1. Senior Class President.

        2. Senior Class Vice President.

        3. Vice President of Finance.

      6. Keep a general ledger of the Senior Class council’s expenditures.

    16. The First Year Class President shall:

      1. Be in their first year at Columbia University.

      2. Sit on the Campus Life Committee.

      3. Provide opportunities for First Year GS students to come together for class-specific social and educational purposes.Uphold relations with the First Year Class Presidents from other councils.

      4. Collaborate with the Student Life Office to plan and execute First Year Class activities.

      5. Fulfill all special assignments as delegated by the Vice President of Campus Life.

    17. The First Year Class Vice President shall:

      1. Be in their first year at Columbia University.

      2. Sit on the Campus Life Committee and act as liaison between the Vice President of Campus Life and the Vice President of Communications.

      3. Attend Events Committee meetings.

      4. Assist the First Year Class President in the fulfillment of his or her duties.

      5. Assume the First Year Class President’s responsibilities in his or her absence.

      6. Assume the role of First Year Class President in the event of the resignation, impeachment, or ineligibility of the First Year Class President.

      7. Fulfill all special assignments as delegated by the First Year Class President and the Vice President of Campus Life.

      8. Coordinate with the Sophomore Class President of other councils.

    18. The Senior Class President shall:

      1. Be classified academically as a senior.

      2. Sit on the Campus Life Committee.

      3. Provide opportunities for Senior Class GS students to come together for class-specific social and educational purposes.

      4. Uphold relations with the Senior Class Presidents from other councils.

      5. Collaborate with the Student Life Office to plan Senior Class events including, but not limited to:

        1. The Senior Cruise

        2. Senior Fund

        3. Senior Week

      6. Fulfill all special assignments as delegated by the Vice President of Campus Life.

      7. Oversee the selection of the Senior Class representative to sit on the Senior Week Committee.

    19. The Senior Class Vice President shall:

      1. Be classified academically as a senior.

      2. Sit on the Campus Life Committee.

      3. Assist the Senior Class President in the fulfillment of his or her duties.

      4. Assume the role of Senior Class President in the event of the resignation, impeachment, or ineligibility of the Senior Class President.

      5. Fulfill all special assignments as delegated by the Senior Class President and the Vice President of Campus Life.

      6. Coordinate with the Junior Class Presidents of other councils.

    20. The Students with Disabilities Representative shall:

      1. Sit on the Policy Committee.

      2. Assist the Vice President of Policy in the fulfillment of his or her duties.

      3. Gauge salient issues among students with disabilities through an annual survey.

      4. Coordinate with the Office of Disability Services to implement policy initiatives for students with disabilities.

      5. Act as a liaison with any governing body directly or indirectly associated with students with disabilities or accessibility on campus.

      6. Fulfill all special assignments as delegated by the Vice President of Policy.

    21. The Diversity and Equity Representative shall:

      1. Sit on the Policy Committee.

      2. Monitor quality of student life as it relates to underrepresented groups including, but not limited to:

        1. Race.

        2. Ethnicity.

        3. Sexual orientation.

        4. Gender expression.

        5. Socioeconomic status.

        6. Religion.

      3. Coordinate with the Office of Multicultural Affairs to implement policy initiatives for students from underrepresented groups.

      4. Work on policy initiatives that promote social and academic equity for students from underrepresented groups.

      5. Act as a liaison on behalf of underrepresented groups and provide opportunities for inclusive, fully integrated student interactions.

      6. Assist the Vice President of Policy in the fulfillment of his or her duties.

    22. The Dual BA & Joint Program Representative shall:

      1. Sit on the Policy and/or Campus Life Committee.

      2. Monitor quality of student life as it relates to students in:

        1. Sciences Po

        2. City University of Hong Kong

        3. JTS

      3. Coordinate with JTS representative.

      4. Coordinate with student organizations from previously listed schools in order to ensure inclusive campus events..

        1. Coordinate with administrators from related establishments to ensure quality of student life is maintained.

    23. The Health and Wellness Representative shall:

      1. Sit on the Policy Committee.

      2. Assist the Vice President of Policy in the fulfillment of his or her duties.

      3. Monitor the quality of mental and physical health at the university and address concerns that may emerge. 

      4. Coordinate with Columbia Health and Counseling and Psychological Services to implement policy initiatives that address the needs of the student body

      5. Coordinate with the GS Health and Wellness Advisor on events and policy initiatives that improve the quality of health and wellness at the university. 

      6. Coordinate Campus Life Committee members to create events that promote health and wellness at the university. 

      7.  Fulfill all special assignments as delegated by the Vice President of Policy.

    24. The Social Media Representative shall:

      1. Sit on the Communications Committee.

      2. Maintain all GSSC-related social media outlets including, but not limited to:

        1. Facebook.

        2. Twitter.

        3. Instagram.

        4. Snapchat.

      3. Regularly inform the GS student body on GSSC-related events.

      4. Assist the Vice President of Communications in the fulfillment of his or her duties.

      5. Fulfill all special assignments as delegated by the Vice President of Communications.

    25. The Chief Negotiator shall:

      1. Sit on the Finance Committee.

      2. Liaise with any and all committees in order to assist council members with communication and negotiation strategies.

      3. Communicate with vendors in order to establish relationships and obtain favorable pricing for events on behalf of the student body. 

      4. Inform the Council of relevant communications with vendors, if necessary.

      5. Assist the Vice President of Finance in the fulfillment of his or her duties.

      6. Fulfill all special assignments as delegated by the Vice President of Finance.

    26. The Technology Chair shall:

      1. Sit on the Communications Committee.

      2. Assist the Vice President of Communications in the fulfillment of his or her duties.

      3. Collaborate with all four GSSC committees to evaluate technological solutions that can improve council processes.

      4.  Manage suite of existing council tech assets including, but not limited to website management and share drive administration 

      5.  Offer assistance to all Communications Committee initiatives and programs.

      6. Fulfill all special assignments as delegated by the Vice President of Communications.

  3. Non-Voting Members– Non-voting, appointed members of the GSSC shall be known as Non-Voting Members. Attendance at their respective committee meetings is mandatory, while attendance at regular GSSC meetings is strongly encouraged. Their titles and duties shall be as follows:

    1. The Legislative Assistants (two positions) shall:

      1. Sit on the Policy Committee.

      2. Be appointed by the University Senator at the beginning of his or her term as outlined in Article IV of the GSSC By-laws. Supplemental appointments may also occur in the event of a mid-year vacancy.

      3. Be familiarized with the duties and responsibilities of the University Senator.

      4. Be fettered to the University Senator and hold no special powers beyond those delegated to them by the University Senator. Their term of service shall coincide with the University Senator’s term as outlined in Article III Section 2 Part A of the GSSC Constitution.

      5. Assist the University Senator in the fulfillment of his or her duties.


 

ARTICLE III: ELECTIONS

 

  1. Elections Task Force

    1. Elections Commission Appointment Committee (ECAC) 

      1. Elections Commission Appointment Committee (ECAC) shall be formed no later than the last GSSC meeting of the Fall semester. 

        1. Members shall be immediately announced to the Student Body.

      2. The ECAC shall be chaired by the GSSC President and composed by the Senior Class President and a graduating senior on each GSSC Committee. 

        1. In the case that the GSSC President is not a senior, the Senior Class President will become chair of the ECAC and the GSSC President will no longer sit on the ECAC.

        2. In the case that there are more than one graduating seniors on a GSSC Committee, the chair of the ECAC shall select between eligible members.

        3. If vacancies on the ECAC remain, the chair of the ECAC may appoint any graduating senior on GSSC to fill the remaining vacancies at his or her discretion.

        4. All ECAC decisions shall be made through a simple majority vote.

      3. The ECAC shall be responsible for interviewing applicants for the Election Task Force Chair.

      4. The ECAC shall nominate no less than two and no more than three candidates for the Election Task Force Chair to GSSC. The nominations shall be decided pursuant to ELECTIONS COMMISSION subsection b.iii.2. 

  2. Elections Task Force (ETF)

    1. Membership

      1. The Elections Task Force shall be comprised of:

        1. Election Task Force Chair

        2. Two or three Election Commissioners (ECs)

    2. Eligibility

      1. Any General Studies student in good standing according to the Dean of Students Office, who is enrolled at least half-time and is not a current member of the General Studies Student Council.

      2. Candidates for the ETF should not have any conflicts of interest with current members of the General Studies Student Council. Conflicts of interest will be determined by the ECAC during the appointment process.

      3. Candidates for the ETF should not be running in the upcoming election and, if appointed, will not be eligible to apply to any positions on GSSC in the upcoming academic year.

    3. Appointment 

      1. No later than Week 4 of the Spring Term, the GSSC shall publicize the availability of ETF positions to the GS student body.

      2. The ETF Chair shall be nominated by the ECAC.

        1. The GSSC shall vote to approve the nomination for the position.

        2. A simple majority of the votes are required for approval.

        3. If all the nominations are declined, the ECAC shall nominate another candidate.

        4. This cycle of proposals shall continue until a candidate has been selected.  

      3. The ETF Chair shall interview and nominate a minimum of three candidates for the ETF positions.

        1. The GSSC shall vote to approve no less than two and no more than three of the nominations for the position. 

        2. A simple majority of the votes are required for approval. 

        3. If all the nominations are declined, the ETF  Chair shall nominate other candidates.

        4. This cycle of proposals shall continue until a minimum of two candidates have been selected.

        5. If there are remaining vacant ETF positions, the Elections process shall continue, with the ECAC assisting the ETF Chair until two ETF positions have been filled.

      4. Responsibilities

        1. Responsibilities for members of the ETF include but are not limited to, ensuring a fair and constitutional election process.

          1. Chair: complete oversight and compulsory delegation of Communications and Event Coordination

            1. Interview and nominate candidates for ETF

            2. The Chair will retain the responsibilities as explicated in Subsections 4-8 of Election Task Force Responsibilities, with the ability to delegate as needed.

            3. One EC shall be in charge of each of the following:

              1. Communications: 

                1. coordinate the email release of election packets to the student body 

                2. advertise information session and election rules meeting 

                3. email candidates with poster approval 

                4. coordinate the email release of debate information to  candidates and GS student body 

                5. coordinate the email release of the voting link to the  student body 

                6. coordinate the email release of the results to the student  body

              2. Event Planning :

                1. submit request for ETF budget out of the GSSC budget 

                2. hold information session and mandatory election rules meeting

                3. hold elections debate

                4. handle potential violations

        2. Serve terms commencing immediately upon the Spring appointment.

        3. Adhere to the following elections timeline.

          1. Week 1 

            1. Submit request for ETF budget out of the GSSC budget

            2. Email elections packet to the student body

            3. Advertise information session

          2. Week 2

            1. Hold information session 

            2. Email application form to the student body

            3. Advertise election rules meeting

          3. Week 3

            1. Email elections packet to candidates

            2. Hold a mandatory election rules meeting

          4. Week 4

            1. Email candidates with poster approval

            2. Hold elections debate

              1. Information about the debate should be emailed to the GS student body and registered candidates at least one week prior to the debate.

              2. The candidates debate should be held at an accessible location on campus.

          5. Week 5

            1. Email voting link to the student body

            2. Email results to the student body

        4. Assemble an Election Packet at least two weeks prior to the election that includes:

          1. A list of relevant election dates

          2. A copy of the Election By-laws

          3. Relevant forms, including but not limited to:

            1. Intent to Run Forms

            2. Endorsement Forms

            3. Rule Violation Forms

            4. Rules Meeting Dates

            5. Debate Dates

            6. Voting Website

        5. Adjudicate on submitted Rule Violation Forms in accordance with the guidelines established on Section vii. Adjudication Process. 

        6. Use only official Columbia email accounts for election-related communication.

        7. In the event that the ETF decides to seek advice from the ECAC regarding election procedure, the communication must be done via email.

          1. The members of the ECAC must consult with each other, before responding

        8. The highest ranking member of the ECAC who sits on the Policy Committee is the only member of the ECAC that may respond.

      5. Authority and Removal of ETF Members

        1. The ETF shall exist as an independent regulatory body while abiding by the GSSC Constitution and By-laws.

        2. Any GS student may submit a complaint to be analyzed by GSSC if they suspect a member of the ETF to have violated the GSSC Constitution and By-laws.

          1. The complaint should include:

            1. Person responsible for violation

            2. Rule(s) violated

            3. Supporting evidence/documentation

          2. Upon receipt of a complaint, the ECAC will have 48 hours to vote to either dismiss the complaint or remove the person from the position.

          3. The decision should be final and can only be overturned by a ¾ simple majority vote from council. 

          4. Complaints can only be submitted during the elections period. 

        3. Any ETF member may resign from their position in accordance with Article V: Resignations of the GSSC By-laws. 

        4. These shall be the only methods through which an ETF member can be removed from their position.

        5. If a member of the ETF resigns or is impeached during their term, they will still be ineligible to run in the Spring GSSC elections or apply to fill a GSSC vacancy during the subsequent school year.

        6. In the case of vacancies on the ETF resulting from resignations or impeachments, the ECAC should appoint a substitute to fill the remainder of the term.

          1. Appointments should be made in accordance with eligibility requirements outlined above.

      6. Rules and Precedence`

        1. The ETF shall follow the Election Rules outlined in the GSSC By-Laws.

        2. The ETF shall draft and approve a Post-Elections Commission Report outlining any inefficiency in the elections process and any actions taken against violations. 

          1. The Report shall be presented to the GSSC and subsequently published to the GS student body.

          2. The GSSC will discuss any future changes to election procedures based off of the findings on the report.

2. Elections

  1. Timeline

    1. GSSC elections shall be held annually before the last day of classes in the spring semester.

    2. The date will be set by the ETF.

    3. The selected date must be announced at least five weeks prior to the elections.

    4. Any changes to the elections timeline must be emailed to the candidates and/or GS Student Body at least 12 hours prior to the beginning of the campaigning period.

 

  1. Eligible Positions

    1. The following positions will be eligible for new representation at each year at the time of annual elections:

      1. Student Body President

      2. Vice President of Policy

      3. Vice President of Finance

      4. Vice President of Campus Life

      5. Vice President of Communications

      6. International Students Representative

      7. Jewish Theological Seminary (JTS) Students Representative

      8. Veteran Students Representative

      9. Senior Class President

      10. Senior Class Vice President

    2. The University Senator will be elected in accordance with the GSSC Constitution (Article III Section 2).

 

  1. Candidate Eligibility

    1. Any GS student who meets the criteria outlined in Article III Section 1 of the GSSC Constitution may run for a GSSC position.

    2. Students wishing to run for a position must submit an Intent to Run Form by the deadline set forth by the ETF and attend the mandatory Rules Meeting.

    3. Any student who wishes to run for the office of Senior Class President or Senior Class Vice President must be classified academically as a senior, as defined by the Student Life Office, for the entirety of the upcoming academic year.

    4. No student shall run for more than one position.

    5. No candidate may run unopposed.  

      1. A candidate is considered unopposed if 12 hours prior to the start of the campaigning period, there are fewer than two eligible candidates on the ballot for that position.

        1. In the event that a candidate withdraws their candidacy within less than 12 hours of the start of the campaigning period, resulting in one candidate running unopposed for that position, the election for that position shall continue. The candidate that withdrew their candidacy shall be ineligible to win the election and shall be removed from the ballot, if possible. In the event that fewer than two eligible students apply to run for a given position, the deadline can be extended for that position only. 

        2. After the deadline extension, if less than two eligible students apply to run for a given position, the position will fall under special appointments outlined in the GSSC By-laws Article IV Section 3. 

  2. Presidential Election 

    1. A candidate for the position of Student Body President cannot run unopposed.

    2. Candidates for this position must have:

      1. Spent one academic year in GS

      2. Have completed a minimum of 12 credits over two consecutive semesters upon the start of the taking office.

    3. In the absence of an opposing candidate, the ETF will defer the race to a Special Election as outlined in Article III Section 9.

      1. Relevant campaigning and other deadlines will be adjusted accordingly to suit the new election date.

  3. Election Rules

    1. Campaigning

      1. Campaigning is any activity that promotes a candidate or party in association with an election. Campaigning includes, but is not limited to, the distribution of posters and palm cards, the publishing of web content, door-to-door canvassing, emailing, public announcements, telephone or text message canvassing.

      2. Campaigning is only allowed during campaigning period. 

        1. The campaigning period will last for no less than seven and no more than ten consecutive calendar days.

        2. Campaigning must end once voting has begun. 

      3. All campaign activities are subject to official university regulations. If the ETF determines that a university regulation has been violated, it shall file a complaint with the administration and refer affected students to the General Studies Bias Response Protocol and the Columbia University Student Conduct and Community Standards.

      4. All candidates are responsible for the conduct of themselves and all others who support or represent them, regardless of whether or not the act/support was requested or solicited. A supporter is defined as anyone working on behalf of or promoting a campaign. Candidates are responsible for notifying such persons of all ETF guidelines and Election by-laws. Rule violations by supporters will be considered as being committed by the candidate(s).

      5. Candidates may not misrepresent themselves or other candidates with fraudulent information in any campaign activities, and may not remove or deface other candidates’ campaign materials

      6. Candidates may not campaign in the GS Lounge.

      7. Candidates may not send unsolicited emails or contact any individuals based on information obtained from the following list:

        1. Petition

        2. Sign-in sheet

        3. Club list

        4. Listserv (distribution list)

        5. Any list compiled by student councils or governing boards

      8. Campaign Materials

        1. Candidates may spend up to $100 on campaign-related print promotional materials. Any other form of paid advertising is prohibited.

        2. Within 24 hours of purchasing campaign materials, candidates must present the ETF with receipts of purchase. Candidates themselves will be responsible for ensuring that they do not exceed the spending guidelines.

        3. Candidates may not offer food or alcoholic beverages in an effort to garner votes. 

        4. Campaign materials may not be procured through donations, sponsorships, employer resources, or any other means not described in the GSSC By-laws. If a candidate has any questions regarding the legitimacy of any campaign materials, they should contact the ETF.

        5. Inappropriate or defaming language and images are prohibited in all campaign materials.

    2. Endorsements

      1. To obtain an official endorsement, a candidate or party and the endorsing organization must comply with the following regulations:

        1. The party or candidate must obtain a Candidate Endorsement Form from the ETF.

        2. The party or candidate must present their platform at a full meeting of the student organization’s executive board.

        3. The endorsing organization must be provided with a copy of the rules regarding endorsements.

        4. If the candidate seeking endorsement is a member of the student group’s executive board, then he or she must abstain from the vote.

        5. The Candidate Endorsement Form must be completed and signed by the candidate seeking the endorsement and the President of the endorsing organization.

        6. If the candidate is the President of the student group for which he or she is seeking endorsement, then the next highest-ranking officer must preside over the vote and sign the Candidate Endorsement Form.

        7. Candidates must submit completed Campaign Endorsement forms to the ETF. Candidates may not publicize an endorsement until the form has been submitted and approved.

        8. Endorsing organizations may not provide financial or material support to candidates. Their members may campaign on behalf of candidates, but must comply with all election rules. Candidates may not campaign on events of their endorsing organizations.

        9. Candidates may not be endorsed by the:

          1. GSSC (General Studies Student Council)

          2. CCSC (Columbia College Student Council)

          3. ESC (Engineering Student Council)

          4. Barnard SGA (Student Government Association)

          5. List College Students Council

          6. Activities Board at Columbia

          7. Student Governing Board

          8. Community Impact

          9. Club Sports Governing Board

          10. Inter-Greek Council

          11. General Studies faculty or administration

          12. ETF (Elections Task Force) 

          13. ECAC (Elections Commission Appointment Committee) 

        10. GSSC, as a body, may not use their privileges as a council to further the candidacy of current members, nor the candidacy of any other students.The following actions, when committed by the GSSC, will be considered in violation of the rules: 

          1. Use of Student Council email privileges to promote a candidate. 

          2. Use of Student Council social media to promote a candidate. 

          3. Campaigning or allowing a candidate to campaign at a Student Council event.

        11. Individual members of GSSC may freely endorse, promote, or otherwise support prospective candidates outside of their respective position on GSSC, with the following considerations:

          1. There are no violations to the Columbia University policies, GSSC Constitution, GSSC By-Laws, or rules prescribed in Article 3 §5.

          2. There are no major ethical breaches.

          3. Any concerns regarding a breach in any of the above policies shall be adjudicated by the Election Task Force.

  4. Election Voting

    1. Voting will take place online.

      1. The ballot will be held through the use of an officially supported university electronic system.

      2. Voting will open at 10am EST on the day of the election and end promptly 72 hours thereafter.

        1. In the case there are any technological problems that impede students from voting, the ETF may extend the elections period by 24 hours with the approval of the Student Life Office. 

      3. Any evidence of a security breach or other violation affecting the integrity of the voting process will force a review of the alleged breach by the administration to determine if a revote is necessary.

    2.  Within one week of the elections, all official GS electronic communication shall prominently feature information about the elections, including:

      1. Links to the candidate statements

      2. The Election Day voting link

      3. Contact information for the ETF.

    3. Votes are tallied by the Student Life Office and confirmed by the ETF.

      1. Once votes are confirmed, the ETF will be responsible for announcing results to the student body.

      2. A simple plurality of votes will determine the winning candidate of each position.

      3. Once elections close, candidates have 24 hours to issue any remaining election complaints to the ETF and any ballot complaints to the Student Life Office.

    4. In the event that candidates with the highest number of votes running for either the position of Student Body President or the University Senator fail to receive 100 votes, a Special Election will be held for the position. 

      1. In the event of three or more candidates for a single position, only the two candidates who received the highest number of votes in the general election will automatically move on to the Special Election Any additional candidates for a Special Election are dictated by the rules in Article III, Section 9.
  5. Adjudication Process

    1. Submission

      1. All violations may be submitted via the official form or email for formal review.

      2. Submissions must clearly identify the rule(s) violated, the illegal action(s), the time and date of the violation if applicable, and the person(s) allegedly responsible for rule violation.

      3. The burden of proof, as to be determined by a preponderance of evidence, shall be on the complainant(s). 

        1. All supporting evidence and/or documentation must be submitted to the ETF at the same time. The ETF cannot accept any delayed evidence regardless of the cause of the delay.

    2. Written Defense

      1. Within 12 hours of the complaint, the ETF shall decide whether to investigate or dismiss the case.

      2. If the ETF decides to investigate, it shall email the accused candidate with the alleged rules violation and evidence of violation. 

      3. Upon receipt of the notification from the ETF, the accused candidate will have 12 hours to respond via email

    3. Adjudication

      1. All documentation will be looked over and given a ruling by the Elections Task Force within 24 hours of the submission of written defense.

        1. The decision should be made by a simple majority vote of the ETF.

      2. If the ETF rules that there has been a violation, the rule-violating party will be immediately notified of the ruling and reasoning for the decision via email. 

        1. The electronic conversation will carbon copy the ETF Student Life Advisor.

    4. First Appeal

      1. The alleged rule violator will have 12 hours to submit a first appeal to the charges in writing or by email to the Elections Task Force.

    5. Resolution

      1. The Elections Task Force will reconvene to vote on the rule violation based on the information in the Rules Violation form and in the rebuttal.

        1. The decision should be made by a simple majority vote of the EC.

      2. Appropriate sanctions, as described on Section 6, will be enforced if the rule violator is found guilty.

    6. Second Appeal 

      1. If the alleged rule violator would like to submit a second rebuttal, the rules violation will be turned over to the SE. 

      2. The Elections Task Force Chair shall be responsible for removing all identifying information from the documents and pertaining to the rules violation and sending a copy of all that documentation to the ECAC Chair. 

      3. The ECAC Chair, upon receiving the contested ruling, shall immediately give a copy of all documents and data involved to all members of the SE. 

      4. The ECAC will have 24 hours to review the information in the documents. v. The appeal and all pertinent documentation should be kept confidential up until the vote occurs and a decision on the appeal is made. 

      5. Within the 24-hour period, the ECAC will vote, requiring a simple majority vote for overturning of the ruling.

      6. Any candidate that attempts to discuss the nature of any appeal with any member of the ETF or ECAC will be submitted to the adjudication process, per Article 6c

        1. If the candidate in question is found responsible, per Article III Section 7, they will be immediately disqualified. 

    7. Timeline

      1. At any point, a party’s failure to comply with a deadline shall constitute a waiver of their right to file a rebuttal or appeal a decision.

  6.  Penalties

    1. Penalties will be implemented in one of two ways:

      1. Warning 

        1. Once the ETF decides that a candidate has violated an election rule, the ETF shall email a warning to the candidate containing the rule violated and the consequences of further violations.

      2. Disqualification

        1.  After receiving a warning, if a candidate violates the same election rule, they will be disqualified by the ETF.

        2. If the candidate violates a second and different election rule, the ETF will be responsible for deciding whether to disqualify the candidate or issue another warning. 

        3. The candidate shall have 24 hours to file an appeal with the ETF, as outlined in Article Section 6. After the 24-hour period, if no appeal has been filed, decisions will be made final and, if relevant, the candidate’s name will be removed from the ballot.

      3. Any rules violations and penalties will be kept in confidentiality during the elections period. The ETF shall release a document with all rules infractions once the elections period is over. 

  7. Special Elections 

    1. A special election is defined as an election scheduled outside the above-mentioned date(s) for a specific purpose.

    2. In a Special Election, Intent to Run Forms, as detailed in Article III, Section 1, will continue to be accepted by the ETF until two weeks before the last day of classes. After this time, the Special Election must take place during the following semester.

    3. In order to win a Special Election, a candidate must receive the majority of votes and have over 100 votes in total.

      1. In the event that a Special Election between two candidates results in no candidate receiving 100 votes, an additional Special Election will be held, following all rules above. 

      2. In the event that a candidate fails to receive 100 votes in a Special Election with three or more candidates, an additional Special Election will be held, following all rules above, except:

        1.  The resulting Special Election will only occur between the top two candidates from the previous Special Election.

 

 

ARTICLE IV: APPOINTMENTS

 

  1. Purpose – A formal process to conduct appointments to the GSSC, in order to fill vacant positions as needed. These appointments shall take place during one of the following conditions:

    1. ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​Spring Appointments

    2. Fall Appointments

    3. Supplemental Appointments

    4. Committee Appointments

  2. Spring Appointments – Following the GSSC Annual Elections, the GSSC shall conduct appointments for the following academic year.

    1. Purpose – To secure highly qualified student leaders for the GSSC in order to best serve the GS student body and the GSSC Constitution.

    2. Administrant – The newly elected Executive Board, herein within this section known as the Executive Board Elect (EBE), shall administer the Spring Appointments.

    3. Definitions

      1. Special Appointment – All Chief positions and positions that are eligible for GSSC Annual Elections and that remain vacant following those elections shall be considered Special Appointments and shall take precedence over the General Appointments.

      2. General Appointment – All positions that are designated as non-elected, voting positions shall be considered General Appointments.

    4. Timeline and Location

      1. Spring appointment shall be conducted during the spring semester, after the GSSC Annual Elections and before commencement.

      2. Spring Appointments shall be conducted in a location at Columbia University, at the discretion of the EBE.

      3. Positions available for the Spring General Appointments and the Spring Special Appointments shall be announced to the GS student body no later than the release of the official and final election results of the GSSC Annual Elections.

      4. Applications will be collected electronically by the current Vice President of Communications and delivered to the EBE by the newly elected Student Body President. The Vice President of Communications shall verify that each application has been properly received with a prompt confirmation email.

      5. The application deadline for all Spring Appointments will be one week after the official and final election results of the GSSC Annual Elections have been released. The applications shall be delivered no later than 24 hours following the deadline.

      6. Upon conclusion of the Spring Appointments, the Vice President of Communications shall notify the GS student body of the results.

        1. The notifications shall take place immediately following the approval of the final applicant.

        2. These results shall be a matter of public record.

    5. Procedure

      1. Special Appointments

        1. Special Appointments take precedence over General Appointments.

        2. These positions shall be filled in order of succession, as defined by the GSSC Constitution and Article VII of the GSSC By-laws, then followed by Senior Class President and Senior Class Vice President.

        3. If any of the EBE positions are vacant, the current officer shall participate as a substitute officer in the appointment process for said position.

          1. If the current officer of that position seeks the nomination for said position, the appointment process will proceed without that substitute officer.

          2. If the current officer of that position holds another position on the EBE, the appointment process will proceed without that substitute officer.

        4. An officer of the EBE may apply for a Special Appointment to a different vacant position on the EBE. No substitute be used to fill in for this officer’s original position during the approval process for his or her new position.

          1. If an officer of the EBE is approved for a vacant office, that officer’s original position will be vacant until filled by a Fall Special Appointment.

          2. An officer of the EBE who is an applicant for a vacant position shall not have a vote in his or her own approval.

        5. For each position, the EBE, with any required substitute officer and all newly elected officers, shall review and interview all applicants, then nominate one applicant for an approval vote.

          1. The General Body of the GSSC shall vote for or against the nomination.

          2.  There shall be no abstentions in this vote.

        6. A majority of the votes are required for approval.

          1. If the nomination is approved, the applicant immediately becomes part of the EBE and relieves his substitute officer.

          2. If the nomination is declined, the EBE, along with any required substitute officers, shall nominate another candidate.

        7. This cycle of proposals shall continue until a candidate has been selected or there are no remaining candidates.

        8. If no candidate is approved, the position shall remain vacant until the Fall Appointment.

      2. General Appointments

        1. General Appointments shall follow the completion of Special Appointments.

        2. For each position, the EBE, with any required substitute officer and all newly elected officers, shall review and interview all applicants, then nominate one applicant for an approval vote.

          1. The General Body of the GSSC shall vote for or against the nomination.

          2. There shall be no abstentions in this vote.

        3. A majority of the votes are required for approval.

          1. If the nomination is approved, the applicant immediately becomes part of the EBE and relieves his substitute officer.

          2. If the nomination is declined, the EBE, along with any required substitute officers, shall nominate another candidate.

        4. This cycle of proposals shall continue until a candidate has been selected or there are no remaining candidates.

        5. If no candidate is approved, the position shall remain vacant until the Fall Appointment.

  3. Fall Appointments – During the fall semester, the GSSC shall conduct appointments for the academic year.

    1. Purpose - To secure highly qualified student leaders for the GSSC in order to best serve the GS student body and the GSSC Constitution.

    2. Administrant – The GSSC Executive Board

    3. Definitions

      1. Special Appointment – All positions that are eligible for GSSC Annual Elections and that remain vacant following those elections and the Spring Appointments shall be considered Special Appointments and shall take precedence over the General Appointments.

      2. General Appointment – All remaining positions on GSSC that are not Special Appointments.

    4. Timeline and Location

      1. Fall Appointments shall be conducted during the fall semester, within two weeks of the first day of the semester.

      2. Fall Appointments shall be conducted in a location at Columbia University, at the discretion of the GSSC Executive Board.

      3. Positions available for all Fall Appointments shall be announced to the GS student body no later than 11:59pm on the first day of the semester.

      4. Applications will be collected electronically by the Vice President of Communications and delivered to the GSSC Executive Board.

      5. The application deadline for all Fall Appointments will be two weeks after the first day of the semester. The applications shall be delivered no later no later than 24 hours following the deadline.

    5. Procedure

      1. Special Appointments

        1. Special Appointments take precedence over General Appointments.

        2. These positions shall be filled in order of succession, as defined by the GSSC Constitution and Article VII of the GSSC By-laws, then followed by Senior Class President and Senior Class Vice President.

        3. For each position, the GSSC Executive Board shall review and interview all applicants, then nominate one applicant for an approval vote.

          1. The General Body of the GSSC shall vote for or against the nomination.

          2. There shall be no abstentions in this vote.

        4. A majority of the votes are required for approval.

          1. If the nomination is approved, the applicant immediately becomes part of the GSSC.

          2. If the nomination is declined, the GSSC shall nominate another candidate.

        5. This cycle of proposals shall continue until a candidate has been selected or there are no remaining candidates.

        6. If no candidate is approved, the position shall remain vacant until the Supplemental Appointment.

      2. General Appointments

        1. General Appointments shall follow the completion of Special Appointments.

        2. For each position, the GSSC Executive Board shall review and interview all applicants, then nominate one applicant for an approval vote.

          1. The General Body of the GSSC shall vote for or against the nomination.

          2. There shall be no abstentions in this vote.

        3. A majority of the votes are required for approval.

          1. If the nomination is approved, the applicant immediately becomes part of the GSSC.

          2. If the nomination is declined, the GSSC shall nominate another candidate.

        4. This cycle of proposals shall continue until a candidate has been selected or there are no remaining candidates.

        5. If no candidate is approved, the position shall remain vacant until the Supplemental Appointment.

  4. Supplemental Appointments – Throughout the academic year, the GSSC shall hold supplemental appointments to fill any voting position that becomes vacant following both Spring and Fall Appointment conditions.

    1. Purpose - To secure highly qualified student leaders for the GSSC in order to best serve the GS student body and the GSSC Constitution.

    2. Administrant – The GSSC Executive Board.

    3. Definitions

      1. In the event that a GSSC position remains vacant following both the spring and fall appointments, or becomes vacant at any time during the academic year, said position shall be filled through a Supplemental Appointment.

      2. Supplemental Appointments may not be used in lieu of spring or fall appointments.

    4. Timeline and Location

      1. Supplemental Appointments shall be conducted during the academic calendar year; no sooner than two weeks after the first day and no later than two weeks before the last day of either the fall or spring semesters.

      2. Supplemental Appointments shall be conducted in a location at Columbia University, at the discretion of the GSSC Executive Board.

      3. Positions available for all Supplemental Appointments shall be announced to the GS student body weekly.

      4. Applications will be collected electronically by the Vice President of Communications and delivered to the GSSC Executive Board.

      5.  Applications for each position shall have a deadline set forth by the GSSC Executive Board.

    5. Procedure

      1. The Vice President of Communication shall disseminate information to the GSSC and the GS student body regarding all open positions of the GSSC after the spring and fall appointments on a weekly basis.

      2. The Vice President of Communication shall develop a system for receiving all applications for said positions.

      3. All applications shall be delivered to the GSSC Executive Board within 48 hours of their acceptance.

      4. Any GSSC member may also recommend an applicant for an open position on the GSSC. Any recommendation must be submitted to the GSSC Executive Board before the application deadline.

      5. A current member of the GSSC may apply for any vacant position on the GSSC.

        1. If the member is appointed for the vacant position, his or her previous position will be vacant until filled by a Supplemental Appointment.

        2. A member of the GSSC who is an applicant for a vacant position shall not vote during the approval process.

      6. For each position, the GSSC Executive Board shall review and interview all applicants, then nominate one applicant for an approval vote.

        1. The General Body of the GSSC shall vote for or against the nomination.

        2. There shall be no abstentions in this vote.

      7. A majority of the votes are required for approval.

        1. If the nomination is approved, the applicant immediately becomes part of the GSSC

        2. If the nomination is declined, the GSSC shall nominate another candidate.

      8. This cycle of proposals shall continue until a candidate has been selected or there are no remaining candidates.

      9. If no candidate is approved, the position shall remain vacant until the Supplemental Appointment.

      10. The frequency of Supplemental Appointments is at the discretion of the GSSC Executive Board.

  5. Committee Appointments. Throughout the academic year, the GSSC shall hold committee appointments to fill any non-voting position as needed by the GSSC.

    1. Purpose - To secure highly qualified student leaders for the GSSC in order to best serve the GS student body and the GSSC Constitution.

    2. Administrant – The GSSC Executive Board.

    3. Definitions

      1. All positions within the GSSC that are non-voting and non-elected shall be considered for  Committee Appointments.

      2. Said positions shall be composed of Non-Voting Members, as described in Article I of the GSSC By- laws.

    4. Timeline and Location

      1. Committee Appointments shall be conducted as needed throughout the academic year.

      2. Committee Appointments shall be conducted in a location at Columbia University, at the discretion of the GSSC Executive Board.

      3. Positions available for all Committee Appointments shall be announced to the GS student body as needed.

      4. Applications will be collected by the relevant Executive Officer.

      5. Application deadlines shall be at the discretion of the relevant Executive Officer.

    5. Procedure

      1. Committee Appointments shall be made at the discretion of the relevant Executive Officer.

      2. The GSSC Executive Board shall be notified of all Committee Appointments.

  6. Exclusions

    1. Resignations and Ineligibilities of the Executive Board Elect (EBE) – If a member of the EBE, other than the Student Body President, is found to be ineligible or resigns after the announcement of the Spring Special Appointments, that position shall be filled during the Fall Appointments or Supplemental Appointments, as needed.

    2. The Student Body President and University Senator may not be appointed. If a vacancy arises in either position, the rules outlined in Article III: Elections apply.

 

 

ARTICLE V: RESIGNATIONS

 

  1. Purpose – A formal process for GSSC vointg meto relinquish their position and title prior to the end of their term in office.

  2. Administrant – The GSSC Executive Board shall administer all resignations.

  3. Definition – The resignation must be a voluntary request to relinquish one’s GSSC position and title.

  4. Timeline and Location – Resignations may occur at any time and from any location.

  5. Procedure

    1. The officer must submit a Letter of Intent to Resign, via email or in person, to the Student Body President.

      1. The Letter of Intent to Resign must contain:

        1. Name and Title of the officer.

        2. Time the resignation shall take effect.

        3. A clause specifying that the resignation is voluntary.

        4. An explanation for the necessity of the resignation.

      2. Within 48 hours of receiving the Letter of Intent to Resign, the Student Body President will present this letter to the other members of the GSSC Executive Board, the Chief Policy Representative, and the Student Life Office.

      3. The GSSC Executive Board, in conjunction with the Chief Policy Representative, shall review the Letter of Intent to Resign and choose to either accept or refuse the resignation.

        1. If the resignation is accepted, the officer requesting to resign shall be notified of the decision within 24 hours by the Student Body President. The resignation shall take place in accordance with the requested time frame.

        2. If the resignation is refused, the officer requesting to resign shall be notified of the decision within 24 hours by the Student Body President. Reasons to refuse the resignation can include, but are not limited to:

          1. Not adhering to the guidelines set forth within Section V of the  Article.

          2. Suspicion of coercion.

          3. Except in rare cases, refusing a Letter of Intent to Resign can lead to complications, refusing should be used sparingly. 

  6. Exclusions

    1. Student Body President - If the Student Body President is requesting to resign, the Vice President of Policy shall take his or her place in all situations that are required for the resignation to take place.

    2. University Senator - Because the University Senator serves two governing bodies, this Officer may not resign from the GSSC without first resigning from the University Senate.

 

 

ARTICLE VI: IMPEACHMENT

  1. Purpose – A formal process to expel elected GSSC Voting Members for violations of the GSSC Constitution and the GSSC By-laws.

  2. Administrant – The GSSC Executive Board shall administer all impeachment proceedings.

  3. Definitions

    1. Impeachment – A formal process in which an elected GSSC Voting Member is accused of violations of the GSSC Constitution and/or the By-laws. The outcome of said impeachment proceedings may lead to expulsion.

    2. Punishment – A punitive action imposed by the GSSC as retribution for a violation of the GSSC Constitution and/or the By-laws.

    3. Expulsion – The removal of a Voting Member from the GSSC.

  4. Timeline and Location

    1. Impeachment shall occur only while classes are in session.

    2. Impeachment Reports shall be delivered Monday through Friday, excluding:

      1. Reading Days

      2. Finals

      3. University Holidays

    3. Impeachment proceedings shall be held in the regularly scheduled time and location of the GSSC General Body Meeting.

  5. Procedure

    1. Initiation of Impeachments

      1. Any GSSC Executive Officer may initiate impeachment proceedings.

      2. Said GSSC Executive Office will create an Impeachment Report and deliver it to the Student Body President.

        1. The Impeachment Report shall contain:

          1. Name and position of the Voting Member to be impeached.

          2. Time(s) and location(s) of the Voting Member's violation(s).

          3. The name of each Article and Section within the GSSC Constitution or the By-laws that the Voting Member violated.

          4. A description of specific events and actions of the Officer that were in violation of the GSSC Constitution or By-laws.

          5.  A recommendation for punishment or expulsion.

        2. If the Student Body President is the Voting Member in question, the Impeachment Report shall be delivered to the Vice President of Communications.

      3. The Impeachment Report shall be disseminated to the GSSC Executive Board and to the Voting Member in question via email by the Student Body President or Vice President of Communications.

      4. The Voting Member in question shall have 48 hours upon receipt of the Impeachment Report to submit a written rebuttal to the GSSC Executive Board.

        1. This written rebuttal shall be received by the Student Body President or the Vice President of Communications and then disseminated to the GSSC Executive Board.

        2. Failure to submit a written rebuttal within 48 hours indicates a forfeiture of the Voting Member's right to dispute the Impeachment Report.

      5. The Student Body President or the Vice President of Communications will publish the Impeachment Report and written rebuttal to the GSSC at least 48 hours prior to the next scheduled GSSC General Body Meeting.

    2. Impeachment Proceedings

      1. The impeachment of an Voting Member accused of the violation(s) contained within the Impeachment Report shall commence during the next scheduled GSSC General Body Meeting following the receipt of said Voting Member's rebuttal by the GSSC. If the Voting Member in question was previously excused from the next meeting, the proceedings will commence the following weekly meeting.

      2. The impeachment proceedings shall take precedence over all other business.

      3. The Executive Officer who created the Impeachment Report shall address the GSSC and initiate discussion for a vote on the punishment or expulsion of the Voting Member in question.

        1. The Voting Member in question has the right to give a rebuttal statement to precede all other discussions. If the Voting Member in question is unexcused from the meeting, he or she waives this right.

        2. The Voting Member in question shall be given the opportunity to respond to all questions. If the Voting Member in question is unexcused from the meeting, he or she waives this opportunity.

        3. No additional violations may be addressed that were not detailed within the Impeachment Report.

        4. No additional punishments, including expulsion, may be addressed that were not detailed within the Impeachment Report.

      4. The Executive Office who created the Impeachment Report shall motion for a vote on the punishment or expulsion of the Voting Member in question:

        1. This vote shall be taken by a secret ballot.

        2. This vote requires a ¾ majority consensus to pass.

        3. To abstain, an Voting Member must present a reasonable argument outlining conflict of interest to the VP of Policy prior to the impeachment hearing. The VP of Policy will decide if said Voting Member may abstain.

          1. In the event that enough Voting Members abstain and quorum cannot be met, quorum will be lowered to exclude those abstaining  .

        4. The result of this vote shall be final and effective immediately. The Student Life Office shall be notified of the result of this vote.

  6. Exclusions

    1. Transfer, Suspension, or Expulsion from School of General Studies

      1. Should an Voting Member transfer out of, be suspended from, or be expelled from the School of General Studies, the Voting Member shall be automatically impeached.

        1. The Voting Member in question shall be notified of his or her impeachment by the Student Body President or the Vice President of Communications.

        2. The notification requires no Impeachment Report, written rebuttal, or Impeachment proceedings.

      2. The Voting Member in question shall be given 48 hours to resign.

      3. If no resignation is submitted, the Voting Member in question shall be expelled from the GSSC.

        1. Expulsion is automatic; no vote is required.

        2. The Student Body President or the Vice President of Communications shall notify the GSSC and the Student Life Office.

    2. Resignations

      1. An Voting Member may resign during the impeachment process up to the start of the Impeachment proceedings.

      2. Resignations procedures shall be defined in Article V of the GSSC By-laws.

      3. If a Voting Member successfully resigns, the impeachment process shall close and no longer be considered a matter of public record.

    3. University Senator

      1. Because the University Senator serves two governing bodies, this Officer may continue to serve their term on the University Senate upon impeachment by, punishment by, or expulsion from the GSSC.

      2. The University Senate may be notified of the result of any impeachment proceedings regarding this Officer.

    4. Non-Voting Member of the GSSC

      1. Any Non-Voting Member of the GSSC may be removed from their position by a majority vote of the EBoard

      2. This removal shall be immediate and without rebuttal.

      3. This removal shall be conducted at the discretion of the relevant Executive Officer.

 

 

Article VII: Removal

  1. Purpose – A formal process to remove appointed, non-elected GSSC Voting Members for violations of the GSSC Constitution and the GSSC By-laws.

    1. The procedure may not be used to remove appointed GSSC Voting members that hold elected positions

  2. Administrant – The GSSC Executive Board shall administer all removal proceedings.

  3. Definitions

    1. Removal – A formal process in which an appointed GSSC Voting Member is removed from office through a unanimous decision from the Executive Board.

  4. Timeline and Location

    1. Removal shall occur only while classes are in session.

    2. Removal Reports shall be delivered Monday through Friday, excluding:

      1. Reading Days

      2. Finals

      3. University Holidays

  5. Procedure

    1. Initiation of Removal

      1. The VP overseeing the appointed GSSC Voting Member must notify, in person, the GSSC Voting Member of their concern that said member is not performing their duties.

        1. The VP must outline the nature of the concern(s) and what steps can be taken to resolve said concern(s).

        2. If the appointed Voting Member fails to provide their overseeing VP with times to meet within one week of notification of the need to meet, then said appointee is subject to removal at the discretion of the Executive Board;

      2. No sooner than two weeks after the meeting in Article XII, Section 5ai, the Executive Board must meet, in person, with the GSSC Voting Member and notify the Voting Member of their concern that said member is not performing their duties.

        1. The Executive Board must outline the nature of the concern(s) and what steps can be taken to resolve said concern(s).

        2. If the appointed Voting Member fails to provide the Executive Board with times to meet within one week of notification of the need to meet, then said appointee is subject to removal at the discretion of the Executive Board;

        3. No sooner than one month after notification in Article XII, Section 5aii, the Executive Board may hold a vote to remove said GSSC Voting Member

        4. The GSSC Voting Member in question must be notified that a vote will take place

          1. The GSSC Voting Member must be given the opportunity to resign before the vote is held

        5. The vote will be held in a closed session with just the Executive Board present

        6. The vote must be unanimous to remove a GSSC appointed Voting Member

    2. Notification of Removal

      1. In the event that an Executive Board removal vote fails, the GSSC Voting Member must be notified of the outcome, but not the voting totals

      2. In the event that an Executive Board removal vote succeeds, the GSSC Voting Member must be notified immediately, and is immediately removed from office.

      3. The open position will be advertised by GSSC

  6. Exclusions

    1. Transfer, Suspension, or Expulsion from School of General Studies

      1. Should an Officer transfer out of, be suspended from, or be expelled from the School of General Studies, the Officer shall be automatically removed.

        1. The Office in question shall be notified of their removal by the Student Body President or the Vice President of Communications.

        2. The notification requires no Removal Report, written rebuttal, or Removal Proceedings.

      2. The Officer in question shall be given 48 hours to resign.

      3. If no resignation is submitted, the Officer in question shall be expelled from the GSSC.

        1. Expulsion is automatic; no vote is required.

        2. The Student Body President or the Vice President of Communications shall notify the GSSC and the Student Life Office.

    2. Resignations

      1. An Officer may resign during the removal process up to the start of the Executive proceedings.

      2. Resignations procedures shall be defined in Article V of the GSSC By-laws.

      3. If an Officer successfully resigns, the removal process shall close.

    3. Associates of the GSSC

      1. Any associate of the GSSC may be removed from their position by a majority vote of the EBoard

      2. This removal shall be immediate and without rebuttal.

 

 

ARTICLE VIII: SUCCESSIONS

 

  1. Purpose – A formal process for electing Voting Members to assume a higher vacant elected position and title.

  2. Administrant – The GSSC Executive Board or the GSSC Executive Board Elect shall administer all successions.

  3. Definitions

    1. Succession

      1. Shall be an automatic process as described in Article IV of the GSSC Constitution.

      2. Shall only include voting members who have been elected by the GS student body.

    2. Order of succession to the position of Student Body President:

      1. Vice President of Policy

      2. Vice President of Finance

      3. Vice President of Communications

      4. Vice President of Campus Life

    3. Senior Class Vice President will automatically succeed to Senior Class President.

  4. Timeline and Location – Successions shall be implemented where and when as needed.

  5. Procedure

    1. Student Body President

      1. Should the Student Body President become unable to ineligible to perform his or her duties, the next Voting Member in the line of succession shall assume his or her duties.

        1. This Voting Member shall only vote in the event of a tie when acting as Student Body President.

        2. This Voting Member shall assume the title of Acting Student Body President until one of the following occurs:

          1. The Student Body President becomes able or eligible to resume his or her duties.

          2. The Student Body President resigns as defined by Article V of the GSSC By-laws.

          3. The Student Body President is expelled through impeachment as defined by Article VI of the GSSC By-laws.

        3. If the Student Body President becomes able or eligible to resume his or her duties, the Voting Member who temporarily assumed those roles shall resume his or her original position.

        4. If the Student Body President should resign or be expelled by impeachment, the Voting Member who assumed those duties shall become the new Student Body President.

      2. If the Student Body President has not been chosen prior to the start of the current GSSC, or if the Student Body President Elect fails to qualify, the next elected Voting Member in the line of succession shall become Student Body President.

      3. If the Student Body President Elect is not willing to assume the position at the start of the current GSSC, the next Voting Member in the line of succession shall become Student Body President.

    2. Senior Class President

      1. Should the Senior Class President become unable or ineligible to perform his or her duties, the Senior Class Vice President shall assume his or her duties.

        1. This Voting Member shall assume the title of Acting Senior Class President until one of the following occurs:

          1. The Senior Class President becomes able or eligible to resume his or her duties.

          2. The Senior Class President resigns as defined by Article V of the GSSC By-laws.

          3. The Senior Class President is expelled through impeachment as defined by Article VI of the GSSC By-laws.

        2. If the Senior Class President becomes able or eligible to resume his or her duties, the Voting Member who temporarily assumed those roles shall resume his or her original position.

        3. If the Senior Class President should resign or be expelled by impeachment, the Voting Member who assumed those duties shall become the new Senior Class President.

      2. If the Senior Class President has not been chosen prior to the start of the current GSSC, or if the Senior Class President Elect fails to qualify, the Senior Class Vice President shall become Senior Class President.

      3. If the Senior Class President Elect is not willing to assume the position at the start of the current GSSC, the Senior Class Vice President shall become Senior Class President.

  6. Exclusions

    1. If an Voting Member ascends to the position of Student Body President or Senior Class President, his or her previous position shall be left vacant. This vacancy will be filled by appointment, as described in Article IV of the GSSC By-laws.

    2. If there is no Senior Class Vice President then the position of Student Class President will be filled by appointment, as described in Article IV of the GSSC By-laws.

    3. Only an elected member of the GSSC may succeed to the position of Student Body President.

      1. If an appointed Voting Member holds the next position in the line of succession, that Office shall be ineligible for succession, and the following elected Officer in the line of succession ascends to the position of Student Body President.

      2. If no elected Voting Members remain in the line of succession to the position of Student Body President, a Special Election shall be held as outlined in Article III of the GSSC By-laws.

        1. Until the official results of said Special Election are announced by the Student Life Office, the first appointed Voting Member in the line of succession shall temporarily assume the Student Body President duties.

        2. When an appointed Voting Member assumes the Student Body President duties, he or she shall assume the title of Acting Chairman of the GSSC.

        3. This Officer shall only vote in the event of a tie when acting as Chairman of the GSSC.

    4. Succession is outlined in Article IV of the GSSC Constitution and, as such, it is an Voting Member's duty to comply with the line of succession. Any Voting Member who refuses may be subject to impeachment.

 

 

ARTICLE IX: MEETINGS

  1. Council Meetings

    1. Purpose – The GSSC shall hold meetings in order to perform their organizational, administrative, and leadership functions as to best serve the GS student body and the GSSC Constitution.

    2. Time and Location

      1. The GSSC shall hold weekly meetings each Tuesday at a time decided by the Executive Officers at the beginning of each term no later than 8:30PM EST while fall and spring semester classes are in session. In the event of a necessary time change for an extenuating circumstance that affects quorum, all Officers must vote on a rescheduled time no later than one week in advance.

      2. The GSSC shall hold weekly meetings in the Jed D. Satow Conference Room on the fifth floor of Lerner Hall at Columbia University.

    3. Quorum and Attendance

      1. Quorum shall be 2/3 of all Officers of the GSSC.

      2. Attendance at the GSSC weekly meeting shall be mandatory for all Officers of the GSSC.

      3. The GSSC Executive Board may grant a limited number of excused absences at their discretion, but any individual having more than four excused absences in a semester may be subject to impeachment. Executive Officers may not excuse themselves.

      4. Absentee voting is not allowed.

      5. Partial absence shall be considered for:

        1. Arrival after the conclusion of the roll call at the beginning of a meeting or absence upon adjournment of a meeting.

        2. Absence from a substantive portion greater than 25% of a meeting, as determined by the start and end times of said meeting, at the discretion of the Student Body President.

      6. Four partial absences shall be considered one unexcused absence.

    4. Parliamentary Authority

      1. The rules contained in the current edition of Robert’s Rules of Order shall govern the GSSC in all cases to which they are applicable and in which they are not inconsistent with the GSSC Constitution, the GSSC By-laws, and any special rules of order the GSSC may adopt.

      2. The Vice President of Policy shall serve as the Parliamentarian.

      3. Only GSSC Officers, as defined by Article II of the GSSC By-laws, may vote during council meetings. The Student Body President may only vote in the event of a tie.

  2. Executive Board Meetings

    1. Purpose – The GSSC Executive Board shall hold meetings in order to perform their organizational, administrative, and leadership functions as to best serve the GS student body and the GSSC Constitution.

    2. Time and Location

      1. The GSSC shall hold weekly Executive Board meetings, on a day and time at the Student Body President’s discretion.

      2. The GSSC shall hold Executive Board meetings in a location at Columbia University, at the Student Body President’s discretion.

      3. The time and location of each Executive Board meeting shall be announced to all Executive Officers at least one week prior to the meeting. If a meeting announcement is not made before the time frame, the rules of attendance for that meeting shall be suspended.

    3. Quorum and Attendance

      1. Quorum shall be a simple majority of all Executive Officers.

      2. Attendance at the Executive Board meeting shall be mandatory.

      3. The Student Body President may grant a limited number of excused absences at his or her discretion.

      4. Absentee voting is not allowed.

      5.  The President shall approve of anyone who is not on the Executive Board attending executive sessions.

    4. Parliamentary Authority – The Student Body President shall define and implement all parliamentary procedures for the Executive Board meetings.

  3. Committee Meetings

    1. Purpose – The four separate GSSC Committees shall hold meetings in order to perform their organizational, administrative, and leadership functions as to best serve the GS student body and the GSSC Constitution.

    2. Time and Location

      1. The GSSC shall hold Committee meetings weekly, while fall and spring semester classes are in session, on day and time determined by each Committee.

      2. The GSSC shall hold Committee meetings in a location at Columbia University, determined by each Committee.

      3. The time and location of each Executive Board meeting shall be announced to all Executive Officers at least one week prior to the meeting. If a meeting announcement is not made before the time frame, the rules of attendance for that meeting shall be suspended.

    3. Quorum and Attendance

      1. Quorum shall be determined by the Vice President of each Committee.

      2. Attendance at the Committee meeting shall be mandatory for all members within that Committee.

      3. The Vice President of each Committee may grant a limited number of excused absences at their discretion, but any individual having more than four excused absences in a semester may be subject to impeachment. The Vice President of each Committee may only be excused by the Student Body President.

      4. Absentee voting is not allowed.

      5. Partial absence shall be considered for:

        1. Arrival after the conclusion of the roll call at the beginning of a meeting or absence upon adjournment of a meeting.

        2. Absence from a substantive portion greater than 25% of a meeting, as determined by the start and end times of said meeting, at the discretion of the Vice President of each Committee.

      6. Four partial absences shall be considered one unexcused absence.

    4. Parliamentary Authority – The Vice President of each Committee shall define and implement all parliamentary procedures for his or her respective Committee.

  4. Special Meetings

    1. Purpose – The GSSC may hold Special meetings as needed throughout the academic year in order to perform their organizational, administrative, and leadership functions as to best serve the GS student body and the GSSC Constitution.

    2. Time and Location – The times and locations of these Special meetings shall be announced to all relevant members at least one week prior to the meeting. If a meeting announcement cannot be made before this time frame, the rules of attendance for that meeting shall be suspended.

    3. Quorum and Attendance

      1. Quorum shall be a simple majority of required attendees.

      2. Attendance requirements for Special meetings shall be at the discretion of the GSSC Executive Board.

      3. Absentee voting is not allowed.

    4. Parliamentary Authority – The organizer of any Special meeting shall define and implement all parliamentary procedures for his or her meeting.

  5. Electronic Meetings

    1. Purpose

      1. The GSSC may hold Electronic meetings as needed throughout the academic year in order to perform their organizational, administrative, and leadership functions as to best serve the GS student body and the GSSC Constitution.

      2. The GSSC shall hold Electronic meetings only when such issues need to be addressed before the next scheduled Council Meeting.

    2. Time and Location

      1. Electronic meetings shall be conducted via email sent to each Voting Member's official Columbia University email address.

      2. Electronic meetings shall be asynchronous, lasting for no longer than 72 consecutive hours.

    3. Quorum and Attendance

      1. Quorum shall be a response from a simple majority of all Voting Members of the GSSC.

      2. Attendance shall be optional.

      3. Attendance shall be determined by an appropriate response within the 72-hour timeframe.

      4. Failure to reply with 72 hours shall result with in a Not Voting (NV).

    4. Procedure

      1. The Student Body President shall email each Voting Member with the issues to be addressed.

      2. Each Voting Member will “reply all” with his or her response for each issue.

        1. Each response may be “yes,” “no,” or abstain.

        2. If an Voting Member chooses to abstain, he or she shall attach a brief statement detailing why he or she abstained.

      3. The results of these votes shall be recorded and added to the minutes of the following Council Meeting.

  6. Other Meetings

    1. Purpose – Any organization holding a meeting in which a GSSC member must attend is considered an Other Meeting.

    2. Time and Location – Shall be defined by the hosting organization.

    3. Attendance

      1. Attendance for Other meetings shall be mandatory.

      2. The GSSC Executive Board may grant excused absences at their discretion. Executive Officers may not excuse themselves.

    4. Parliamentary Authority – Shall be defined by the hosting organization.

 

 

ARTICLE X: EXECUTIVE BOARD

 

  1. Members – The following GSSC Voting Members shall serve on the Executive Board and be known as the GSSC Executive Officers.

    1. Student Body President

    2. Vice President of Policy

    3. Vice President of Finance

    4. Vice President of Communications

    5. Vice President of Campus Life

  2. Purpose - The GSSC Executive Board shall perform their organizational, administrative, and leadership functions to best serve the GS student body and the GSSC Constitution.

  3. Authorities and Responsibilities – In addition to the authorities and responsibilities previously defined, the GSSC Executive Board shall have the power to:

    1. Establish broad policies and objectives for the GSSC.

    2. Hold meetings as needed to best serve the GS student body and the GSSC Constitution.

    3. Nominate candidates for the positions within the GSSC.

    4. Impeach GSSC Voting Members.

    5. Ensure the availability of adequate financial resources for the GSSC and approve expenditures of less than a predetermined amount each academic year.

    6. Speak on behalf of the GSSC.

 

  1.  Rules of the Board – The Student Body President may adopt rules and policies for the GSSC Executive Board, in order to best serve the GS student body and the GSSC Constitution, so long as such rules do not contradict said Constitution and By-laws.

  2. Exclusions – The authorities and responsibilities of the GSSC Executive Board include, but are not limited to, those detailed within this Article.

 

 

ARTICLE XI: COMMITTEES

 

  1. Purpose – The GSSC shall form committees as to best serve the GS student body and the GSSC Constitution.

  2. Administrant – The GSSC Executive Board shall form and administer all committees.

  3. Composition

    1. Standing Committees

      1. The GSSC shall have four Standing Committees as follows:

        1. Policy Committee

        2. Finance Committee

        3. Communications Committee

        4. Campus Life Committee

      2. Standing Committees shall be chaired by the respective GSSC Vice Presidents.

      3. Standing Committees may be composed of voting Members and Non-Voting Members, and any other student or Alumni of Columbia University, as needed to best serve the GS student body and the GSSC Constitution.

      4. Standing Committees shall be conducted as described in Article VIII of the GSSC By-laws.

    2. Subcommittees:

      1. Also known as Non-Standing Committees as described in Article VI of the GSSC Constitution.

      2. The Committees may form subcommittees, as needed, to best serve the GS student body and the GSSC Constitution.

      3. Subcommittees shall each be chaired by an Officer from that relevant Standing Committee.

    3. Special Committees

      1. The GSSC may form Special Committees, as needed, to best serve the GS student body and the GSSC Constitution.

      2. The Student Body President shall appoint the chair of any Special Committee

 

 

ARTICLE XIII: AMENDMENTS

 

  1. Purpose – A formal process for the GSSC to amend the GSSC By-laws.

  2. Administrant – The Vice President of Policy shall administer all amendments to the GSSC By-laws.

  3. Definitions

    1. Amendment – The process of changing or adding to the GSSC By-laws.

    2. Revision – The process of rewriting the GSSC By-laws.

  4. Timeline and Location

    1. Amendments shall occur only while classes are in session.

    2. Proposed amendments shall be disseminated to the GSSC Voting Members at least 72 hours prior to voting on them.

    3. Amendment votes shall be held at the regularly scheduled time and location of the GSSC General Body meeting.

  5.  Procedure

    1. Notification

      1. Any GSSC Voting Member may notify the Vice President of Policy in the case of a problem or potential addition to the GSSC By-laws.

      2. The Vice President of Policy shall review all inquiries.

    2. Conclusion

      1. After reviewing the problem or addition, the Vice President of Policy shall do one of the following:

        1. Create an Amendment to the Article in question.

          1. This amendment may replace the original working in the appropriate Article or Section.

          2. This amendment may add to the original wording in the appropriate Article or Section.

        2. Create an Amendment to the GSSC By-laws, which adds an additional Article and/or Section to the document.

        3. Inform the notifying Voting Member that no addition or change shall be made.

    3. Dissemination and Voting

      1. If the Vice President of Policy creates an Amendment to the GSSC By-laws, it requires a 3/5 majority vote of quorum to ratify the change.

      2.  All Amendments shall be disseminated to the GSSC Voting Members at least 72 hours prior to voting on them.

  6. Exclusions

    1. No Amendment may be created which is in violation of the GSSC Constitution or the rules and regulations of Columbia University.

    2. If more than 25% of the GSSC By-laws are to be altered at any one time, the result shall be known as a revision. Revised By-laws shall be labeled by edition.